KH Mohammad Hashim Ash'ari, or so-called KH Hasyim Ashari he was born on 10 April 1875 or by the Arabic calendar on the 24th Awal 1287H Gedang Village, District Diwek, Jombang, East Java, and he subsequently died on July 25 1947 were later interred at Cane Ireng, Jombang, KH Hasyim NU founder of the Islamic mass organization in Indonesia. KH Hasyim Asyari was the son of the couple Kyai Asyari and Halimah, his father was a leader Kyai Ashari Hard boarding school located in the south Jombang. KH Hasyim Ashari was the third of 11 children. From his mother's lineage, KH Hasyim Ashari was the eighth descendant of Jaka Tingkir (Sultan Pajang). of the father and mother KH Hasyim Ashari education and basic values of Islam are solid.
Biography KH Hasyim
Since children, talent and intelligence leadership KH Hasyim Ashari is already visible. Among sepermainannya friends, he often appeared as a leader. In the age of 13, he had helped his father teach students-students who are bigger than him. Hashim age 15 left his parents, ventured to deepen knowledge of the schools to other schools. At first he was at boarding school students Wonokoyo, Probolinggo. Then move to the boarding Langitan, Tuban. Moving again Pesantren Trenggilis, Semarang. Not satisfied with dikecapnya science, he went on Kademangan boarding school, under the tutelage of Kyai Bangkalan Cholil.
KH Hasyim Asyari learning the basics of the religion of his father and grandfather, who is also the leader Uthman Kyai Nggedang boarding school in Jombang. Since the age of 15, he ventured studying at various schools, including boarding Wonokoyo in Probolinggo, boarding Langitan in Tuban, boarding Trenggilis in Semarang, boarding and boarding Kademangan in Bangkalan Siwalan in Sidoarjo. Shortly here, Hashim moved again in boarding Siwalan, Sidoarjo. In schools that nurtured Kyai Jacob is, presumably, Hashim felt really wants to find the source of Islam. Kyai Jacob is known as a liberal-minded clerics and pious in religion. Pretty-five-year-old Hashim Siwalan absorb knowledge at boarding school. And apparently Kyai kesengsem Ya'qub own weight to an intelligent and pious young man was. So, Hashim not only get knowledge, but also his wife. He, who was only 21 years old, married with Chadidjah, one daughter Kyai Ya'qub. Not long after the marriage, Hashim and his wife went to Mecca to perform the pilgrimage. Seven months there, Hashim returned to their homeland, after his wife and son died. In 1893, he went again to the Holy Land. Since then, he lived in Mecca for the past 7 years and studied at Shaykh Ahmad Khatib Minangkabau, Mahfudh At Tarmisi Shaykh, Shaykh Ahmad Amin Al Attar, Shaykh Ibrahim Arab, Said Sheikh Yamani, Rahmaullah Shaykh, Shaykh Sholeh Bafadlal, Sayyid Abbas Maliki, Sayyid Alwi bin As Saqqaf Ahmad and Sayyid Husayn al Ethiopia ..
Year l899 returned to the country, Hashim grandfather's teaching in pesantren, Kyai Usman. Shortly thereafter he founded Pesantren Tebuireng. Kyai Kyai Hasyim not only reputable, but also a successful farmer and merchant. The ground dozens of acres. Two days a week, usually Kyai Hasyim break is not teaching. That's when he checked the rice fields. Sometimes also go horse trading Surabaya, iron and sell their agricultural products. From farming and trade that, Kyai Hashim and his family pesantren.
In 1899, Kyai Hasyim buy a plot of land of a mastermind in Hamlet Tebuireng. It is located approximately 200 meters west of the Cukir Sugar Factory, the factory has been established since 1870. Tebuireng hamlet located in the east village of Hard, approximately 1 km. There he built a building made of bamboo (Java: tratak) as a place to live. From this small tratak Tebuireng embryo begins boarding. Kyai Hasyim teaching and tratak prayers at the front, while the rear tratak be a place to stay. At that santrinya amounting to 8 people, and three months later increased to 28 people.
After two years of building Tebuireng, Kyai Hasyim back to lose his beloved wife, Nyai Khodijah. At that time, their struggle has revealed encouraging results. Kyai Hasyim later remarried Nyai Nafiqoh, daughter Kyai Ilyas, caregivers boarding Sewulan Madison. From this marriage was blessed with 10 children Kyai Hashim, namely: (1) Hannah, (2) Khoiriyah, (3) Aisha (4) Azzah, (5) Abdul Wahid, (6) Abdul Hakim (Abdul Kholik), (7) Abdul Karim, (8) Ubaidillah, (9) Mashuroh, (10) Muhammad Yusuf. At the end of the 1920s, died Nafiqoh Nyai so Kyai Hasyim remarried Nyai Masruroh, daughter Kyai Hasan, caregivers Boarding Kapurejo, Capping, Kediri. From this marriage, Kyai Hasyim 4 people blessed with sons and daughters, namely: (1) Abdul Qodir, (2) Fatimah, (3) Khotijah, (4) Muhammad Ya'qub.
Unheard impressive dialogue between the two great scholars, KH Muhammad Mohammad Hashim Ash'ari with KH Cholil, teacher. "I used to teach it sir. But today, I stated that I was a student sir, "said Mbah Cholil, so Kyai of Madura is popular called. Kyai Hasyim replied, "I really did not know that Mr. Guru would say such words. Do not touch any of Mr Guru sit on me, a disciple you yourself, sir student teacher first, and also now. In fact, it would still be a student Tuan Guru for ever. "Without flattered, Mbah Cholil persisted with his intentions. "Decisions and certainty our hearts are fixed, not negotiable and changed again, that we will help to learn here, to accommodate Mr. sciences, and learn to master," he said. Because the teacher was familiar with the character, Kyai Hasyim can not do other than accept it as students.
Funny thing is, when it comes down from the mosque after prayers in congregation, they hurried to place slippers, sometimes even precede each other, because the pair wanted to foot the teacher. Indeed, it could happen a student ultimately smarter than the teacher. And it's a lot going on. But that indicated Kyai Hasyim Kyai Cholil;'s glory morals. Both shows humility and respect, two things are now increasingly hard to find on the students and our teachers. Mbah Kyai Cholil is very famous in his time. Almost all the founders of NU and NU important figures earlier generations never studied to the caregiver and leader of the boarding Kademangan, Bangkalan, Madura, this.
While Kyai Hasyim itself no less brilliant. Not only was he the founder and supreme leader of NU, which had a very strong influence to the clergy, but also because of the height of knowledge. Especially, the famous qualified in the science of Hadith. Every Ramadan Kyai Hasyim have a 'tradition' roll Bukhari and Muslim hadith studies for a month long. The study was able to absorb the attention of the Islamic Ummah. So no wonder if the participants come from various parts of Indonesia, including a former teacher himself, Kyai Cholil. Thousands of students studying to Kyai Hasyim. After graduating from Tebuireng, not least among students Kyai Hasyim later appeared as a prominent and influential scholars and widely famous. KH Abdul Wahab Chasbullah, Bisri Syansuri KH, KH. R. As'ad Syamsul Arifin, Wahid Hashim (his son) and KH Ahmad Siddiq is some famous scholars who had been students Kyai Hasyim. No doubt in the 20th century boarding school Tebuireng is the largest and most important in Java. Zamakhsyari Dhofier, author of 'Tradition Islamic School', noting that schools are a source Tebuireng scholars and leaders of pesantren institutions across Java and Madura. No wonder if his followers were later given the title Hadratus-Shaykh (Tuan Guru Besar) to Kyai Hasyim.
Due to such a strong influence, the presence of serious concern Kyai Hasyim invaders. Both the Dutch and the Japanese tried to embrace it. Of whom he had awarded the service in 1937, but declined. Precisely Kyai Hashim had made the Dutch reeling. First, he memfatwakan that the war against the Dutch is jihad (holy war). Dutch then very inconvenience, because persistent resistance against the invaders appeared everywhere. Second, Kyai Hasyim also forbids using Dutch ships pilgrimage. The fatwa was written in Arabic and published by the Ministry of Religious Affairs widely. Just awful, Van der Plas (Dutch government) became confused. Because many of the Islamic ummah who have signed up and then out the attack.
But the taste was also Kyai Hasyim 3 months in prison l942. No clear reason for Japan's catch Kyai Hasyim. Perhaps, because of his uncooperative with the invaders. Interestingly, his teacher was so khidmatnya, some students asked Kyainya was incarcerated together. The beginning of the struggle Kyai Tebuireng Hashim in conjunction with the repressive treatment of the Dutch against the people of Indonesia. Troops Company does not hesitate to kill people who oppose the legislation considered invaders. Boarding Tebuireng were not spared from the target of repressive Dutch. In 1913 AD, the Dutch intelligence sent a thief to create confusion in the Tebuireng. But he was caught and beaten by a gang students to death.
This event is used by the Dutch to capture Kyai Hasyim charged with murder. In the examination, Kyai Hasyim very skilled with the laws of the Netherlands, was able to dismiss all charges with the tactical. Eventually he was released from the bondage of the law. Not satisfied with the way provoke, the Dutch company sent some troops to ravage the newly established boarding an 10-year-old. As a result, almost all of the schools in ruins, and the books were destroyed and burned. Dutch repressive treatment continues until the times of physical revolution Year 1940. In March 1942, the Dutch surrendered to the Japanese in Kalijati, near Bandung, making it the de facto and de jure, Indonesia power changed hands to the Japanese army.
Dai Nippon occupation marks a new era for the arrival of Islam. In contrast to the repressive Islamic Dutch, Japanese combine policies of repression and co-optation, in an attempt to gain the support of Muslim leaders. One of Japan's repressive treatment was the arrest of Shaykh Hadratus along with a number of sons and relatives. This is done because Kyai Hashim refused to seikerei. That obligation lined up and bowed in the direction of Tokyo each at 07.00 am, as symbols of tribute to Emperor Hirohito and obedience to the god of the sun (Amaterasu Omikami). This activity also must be done by all citizens in occupied Japan, each time passing or crossing in front of the Japanese army. Kyai Hasyim reject rule. Because only God who shall be worshiped, not human. Consequently, Kyai Hashim was arrested and detained migrants, ranging from prison Jombang, then Mojokerto, and finally to prison lathe, Surabaya.
Because the loyalty and confidence that Hadratus Shaikh was in the right, a number of students ask follow Tebuireng arrested. While in custody, Kyai Hasyim suffered much physical abuse so that one becomes a broken finger can not be moved. After detention Hadratus Shaikh, all teaching and learning activities in Pesantren Tebuireng total vacuum. The arrests also led Hadratus Shaikh family in disarray. Wife Kyai Hasyim, Nyai Masruroh, had fled to boarding Denanyar, the western city of Jombang.
Dated August 18, 1942, after 4 months of imprisonment, Kyai Hasyim released by the Japanese because of the protests of the Kyai and students. In addition, the release of Kyai Hasyim also thanks to the efforts of Kyai Wahid Hashim and Kyai Wahab Hasbullah contacted authorities in Japan, especially Saikoo Sikikan in Jakarta. Dated October 22, 1945, when troops NICA (Netherland Indian Civil Administration) established by the Dutch government piggybacking British-led Allied forces, attempted aggression to Java (Surabaya) by reason of taking care of captive Japanese, Kyai Hasyim together scholars call
Resolution Jihad against the joint forces and the British NICA.
Jihad resolution signed at the office of NU lathe, Surabaya. As a result, people's war, the universe erupted 10 November 1945 in the battle of the historic. Muslims who heard the Resolution Jihad that was out of the villages to bring any weapons to fight the combined forces of the NICA and the UK. Events November 10, then celebrated as National Heroes Day. On November 7, 1945-three days before the outbreak of war, November 10, 1945 in Surabaya-Muslims form a political party called the Shura Council of Indonesian Muslims (Masyumi). Masyumi formation is one step consolidation of Muslims from various schools. Kyai Hashim was appointed as Ro'is' Am (Chairman) First period 1945-1947. During the struggle repel invaders, Kyai Hasyim known as an advocate, advisor, as well as generals in the army-paramilitary movement struggles as GPII, Hezbollah, Sabilillah, and the Mujahideen movement. Even General Sudirman and Bung Tomo always ask for directions to Kyai Hasyim.
His ability in the science of hadith, inherited from his teacher, Shaykh Mahfudh At Tarmisi in Mecca. During the 7 years studied to Shaykh Hashim famous origin Pacitan, East Java. Besides Mahfudh Shaykh Hashim also studying to Shaykh Ahmad Khatib Al Minangkabau. To the two professors was exactly Kyai Ahmad Dahlan, the founder of Muhammadiyah, sit. Thus, the KH Hasyim and KH Ahmad Dahlan single real teacher. We must emphasize, when Hashim studying in Mecca, Muhammad Abduh was Actively move forward with reform of Islamic thought. And as it is known, Abduh's ideas greatly influenced the Islamic Ummah next trip. As already shelled Deliar Noer, Islamic reform ideas advocated by Abduh launched from Egypt, has attracted the attention of Indonesian students-students who are studying in Mecca. Includes Hashim course. Abduh's reform idea is to first bring back the Islamic Ummah to purify Islam from the influence and religious practice that is not derived from Islam.
Second, reform of Islamic education at the university level, and third, examine and reformulate Islamic doctrine to suit the needs of modern life, and the fourth, the defense of Islam. Abduh attempt to formulate doctrines of Islam to meet the needs of modern life first intended so that Islam can play back a greater responsibility in the field of social, political and educational. For this reason Abduh launched the idea that the Islamic Ummah away from their attachment to the school of thought patterns and that the Islamic Ummah abandon all forms of practice congregation. Shaykh Ahmad Khatib Abduh supports some thought, although it is different in several respects. Some students of Shaykh Khatib when returning to Indonesia was developed Abduh's ideas. Among these are the KH Ahmad Dahlan who later founded the Muhammadiyah. Not so with Hashim. He was also receptive to ideas to energize Abduh of Islam, but he refused Abduh mind that the Islamic Ummah away from school attachment.
He believes that it is impossible to understand the true meaning of the teachings of the Qur'an and Hadith without examining the opinions of the great scholars who are members of the school system. To interpret the Koran and Hadith without studying and examining the books of the scholars schools will only produce distortion away from the teachings of true Islam, writes Dhofier. In terms of orders, Hashim not assume that all forms of religious practice time was wrong and against the teachings of Islam. Only, he ordered that the Islamic Ummah to be careful when entering the life of the congregation. During development, the clash of opinion between the groups represented bermazhab pesantren (often called traditional groups), with no bermazhab (represented by Muhammadiyah and Persis, often called modernists) that is often inevitable.
The climax is when Congressman Al Islam IV held in Bandung. The congress was held in order to seek input from a diverse group of Muslims, to bring to Congress the Muslims in Mecca. Because traditional class aspirations are not accommodated (among them: bermazhab tradition to keep the freedom, preserving important places, from the tomb of the Prophet through the Companions) group was later formed a Committee Hijaz.
Committee spearheaded Chasbullah KH Wahab Abdullah is tasked to deliver the aspirations of the traditional ruler of Saudi Arabia. Upon approval Kyai Hashim, Committee on February 31 this is so manifest l926 Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), which means resurrection scholars. After NU standing traditional groups increasingly strong position. Evidently, in 1937 when some Islamic organizations to form federations and associations Indonesian Islamic party which is famous as blind MIAI (Islamic Council A'la Indonesia) Kyai Hasyim requested be chairman. He has also led Masyumi, the largest Islamic political party ever in Indonesia. Confine long occupation of Indonesia, arouse the consciousness of the educated to fight for the dignity of the nation, through the education and organization. In 1908 appeared a movement now called the National Awakening Movement.
The spirit of National Awakening continues to spread everywhere, so comes a variety of educational organizations, social, and religious, including Nahdlatul Wathan (Awakening the country) in 1916, and Taswirul Afkar 1918 (also known as Nahdlatul Fikri or Awakening Mind). From there then established Nahdlatut Tujjar (The Merchant of movement). States was used as a basis for improving the people's economy. With the Nahdlatul Tujjar, it appears Afkar Taswirul As with the study group as well as educational institutions that is growing very rapidly and has branches in several cities. The key figure behind the establishment tafwirul Afkar is, KH Abdul Wahab Hasbullah (PP young leaders caregivers. Bahr Uloom Tambakberas), also students hadratus Shaikh. The group was born as a concern of the scholars of the challenges of the times in that period, both in religious, educational, social, and political. At that time, the King of Saudi Arabia, Ibn Saud, plan to make schools as Salafi-Wahabi official state schools. He also plans to destroy all Islamic heritage that has been widely diziarahi Muslims, because it is considered heresy. In Indonesia, the plan has received a warm welcome as Muhammadiyah modernists under the leadership of Ahmad Dahlan, and PSII in the leadership of HOS bahwah Tjokroaminoto. Instead, the schools that respects diversity, refused on the grounds it is a restriction of schools and the destruction of civilization's heritage. As a result, the schools were excluded from membership of the Congress Al Islam and not included as delegates in Mu'tamar 'Alam Islami (Islamic Congress International) in Mecca, which will validate the decision. Driven by a passion to create bermadzhab freedom and a sense of concern for the preservation of the heritage of civilization, then Kyai Hasyim with caregivers other schools, making the Committee delegation called Hijaz. Committee chaired by KH. Wahab Hasbullah comes to Saudi Arabia and asked King Ibn Saud for the attack.
At the same time, also came from different parts of the world challenge the plan Ibn Saud, so the plan was foiled. As a result, to this day the Muslims freely practice their religion in Mecca in accordance with their respective schools. That is the first international role among schools, a successful fight for freedom bermadzhab and managed to save historical heritage and civilization are invaluable.
Establishment Nahdlatul Ulama (NU)
In 1924, a group discussion Taswirul Afkar want expand by setting up an organization greater scope. Hadratus Sheikh KH. Hashim Ash'ari who asked for his consent, asked for time to pray istikharah, menohon guidance from God. Awaited for so long, the instructions were not come. Kyai Hasyim very nervous. In his heart wants to meet with his teacher, KH Kholil bin Abdul Latif, Bangkalan. While there Bangkalan distant, Kyai Khalil already know what happens to Kyai Hasyim. Kyai Kholil then sent one person santrinya named As'ad Syamsul Arifin (later to become caregivers PP Salafiyah Syafiiyah Situbondo), to deliver a rosary to Kyai Hasyim in Tebuireng. Youth As'ad also dipesani so when I got the letter read Tebuireng Taha verse 23 to Kyai Hasyim.
When Kyai As'ad arrival Hashim received, and heard the verse, his heart immediately bergentar. "My desire to establish Jamiyah likely to be achieved," he said quietly as he shed tears. Time goes by, but the establishment of an organization that has not been realized. Presumably Kyai Hasyim still awaiting liver stability. One year later (1925), the young man again came to Hadratus As'ad Shaikh. "Kyai, I was sent by Kyai Kholil beads to deliver this," the boy said, pointing Asad Kyai Kholil rosary draped around his neck. As'ad hand never touched the rosary sersebut, although travel between Bangkalan towards Tebuireng very much and a lot of obstacles. In fact he was willing to not shower during the trip, for fear his hand touched the rosary. He has principles, "which put this necklace is Kyai, then that may also have to remove Kyai".
This is one of attitude of obedience to the teacher's students. "Kyai Kholil also asked to practice wirid Ya Jabbar, Ya Qahhar every time," said As'ad. The presence of this second As'ad Kyai Hasyim makes the heart more stable. Shaykh Hadratus take a hint that the teacher did not mind if he and his associates established organizations / h 'iyah. This anticipated answers through prayer istikharah later. Unfortunately, before the desire is realized, Kyai Kholil had died first. On 16 Rajab 1344 H/31 1926M January, the organization was officially established, with the name Nahdhatul Ulama ', which means resurrection scholars. Kyai Hashim Rais Akbar is believed to be the first. Later, Jam'iyah a member of the organization with the largest in Indonesia, even in Asia.
As is known, at that time (even now) there is conflict in the Islamic world ideology, between ideology renewal launched by Muhammad Abduh of Egypt with the schools that accept the practice bermadzhab congregation. The idea of reform of Muhammad Abduh Among other back purify Islam from the influence and religious practices that are not from Islam, reform of Islamic education at the university level, and review and reformulate the doctrine of Islam to suit the needs of modern life. With this Abduh melancarakan idea that Muslims irrespective of schools of thought patterns and leave all forms of practice congregation. Abduh also affect the spirit of the people of Indonesia, mostly in the area of Sumatra, which was taken by students who are studying in Mecca.
While in Java, spearheaded by KH. Ahmad Dahlan through Muhammadiyah organization (established in 1912). Kyai Hasyim in principle to accept the idea of Muhammad Abduh to revive the teachings of Islam, but refused to release ourselves from dependence schools. Because in his view, Muslims are very difficult to understand the intent of the Qur'an or the Hadith without examining the books of the scholars schools. Thinking of Kyai Hasyim firm has received the support of all the land Kyai Java and Madura. Kyai Hashim who was a "mecca" of Kyai, succeeded in uniting them through the establishment NU 'this. At the time of establishment of the organization nationalist movement formed the Islamic Council 'Ala Indonesia (MIAI), with his son Kyai Kyai Wahid Hashim Hashim, was appointed as chairman (1937-1942 period).